里根与homeless

CleverBeaver
楼主 (北美华人网)
谷歌了一下 选了个看上去没有倾向性的平台的报道
https://www.kqed.org/news/11209729/did-the-emptying-of-mental-hospitals-contribute-to-homelessness-here
Did the Emptying of Mental Hospitals Contribute to Homelessness? Dec 8, 2016 The 'Demented Men's Building' at Agnews State Hospital. (Library of Congress)
After patients were released from mental hospitals, there wasn't always a place for them to go. On this week's episode, we explore if deinstitutionalization was a factor in the Bay Area's homeless crisis. Bay Curious is a new podcast from KQED that’s all about answering your questions about the Bay Area. Earlier this year, we asked for your questions on homelessness. More than 1,300 of you responded and we answered many of your questions in our first round of reporting. There was one topic that kept coming up again and again as we sorted your questions. This week on the podcast, we answer listener Debbie Ow’s question: “Is the situation as bad as it is because of the closure of mental health facilities in our state?” Click the red play button above for the full story, and look below for a timeline of deinstitutionalization. Deinstitutionalization: A History 1833 Worcester State Hospital opens in Massachusetts as the first mental hospital fully supported by state funds.
Worcester State Asylum in Worcester, Massachusetts, dated 1905. (Wikimedia Commons) 1860 Twenty-eight of the 33 existing U.S. states have state psychiatric hospitals. 1939-1945 During World War II conscientious objectors enter state psychiatric hospitals to replace doctors who were sent away for the war effort.  1946 Life Magazine publishes photos depicting the horrors inside the hospitals. 1954 Chlorpromazine, marketed as Thorazine, is approved by the Food and Drug Administration. It’s the first anti-psychotic drug widely used to treat the symptoms of mental illness. For many, it brought hope that some patients could live among the community. 
'Bedlam 1946' spread from Life Magazine. (The Jerry Cooke Archives) 1955 The number of patients inside public mental hospitals nationwide peaks at 560,000. 1959 The number of patients in California state mental hospitals peaks at 37,000
President John. F. Kennedy (Library of Congress) 1963 President John F. Kennedy signs the Community Mental Health Act. This pushes the responsibility of mentally ill patients from the state toward the federal government. JFK wanted to create a network of community mental health centers where mentally ill people could live in the community while receiving care. JFK could have been inspired to act because his younger sister, Rosemary, was mentally disabled, received a lobotomy and spent her life hidden away.  Less than a month after signing the new legislation, JFK is assassinated. He doesn’t see the plan through. The community mental health centers never receive stable funding, and even 15 years later less than half the promised centers are built.
The Community Mental Health Act of 1963. 1965 The U.S. Congress establishes Medicaid and Medicare. Mentally disabled people living in the community are eligible for benefits but those in psychiatric hospitals are excluded. By encouraging patients to be discharged, state legislators could shift the cost of care for mentally ill patients to the federal government.  1967 Ronald Reagan is elected governor of California. At this point, the number of patients in state hospitals had fallen to 22,000, and the Reagan administration uses the decline as a reason to make cuts to the Department of Mental Hygiene. They cut 2,600 jobs and 10 percent of the budget despite reports showing that hospitals were already below recommended staffing levels. 1967 Reagan signs the Lanterman-Petris-Short Act and ends the practice of institutionalizing patients against their will, or for indefinite amounts of time. This law is regarded by some as a “patient’s bill of rights”. Sadly, the care outside state hospitals was inadequate. The year after the law goes into effect, a study shows the number of mentally ill people entering San Mateo's criminal justice system doubles. 1969 Reagan reverses earlier budget cuts. He increases spending on the Department of Mental Hygiene by a record $28 million. 1973 The number of patients in California State mental hospitals falls to 7,000. 1980 President Jimmy Carter signs the Mental Health Systems Act to improve on Kennedy’s dream.
President Ronald Reagan (Library of Congress) 1981 President Reagan repeals Carter’s legislation with the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. This pushes the responsibility of mentally ill patients back to the states. The legislation creates block grants for the states, but federal spending on mental illness declines.  2004 The U.S. Department of Justice estimates that 10 percent of state prisoners have symptoms that meet criteria for a psychotic disorder. 2015 In the San Francisco Homeless Count, 55 percent of people experiencing chronic homelessness report they have emotional or psychiatric conditions.

CleverBeaver
Safari自带的渣翻译
加利福尼亚州报告 精神病院的空置是否助长了无家可归?
杰西卡·普拉切克 2016 年 12 月 8 日 阿格纽斯州立医院的“痴呆男子建筑”。(国会图书馆) 患者从精神病院出院后,并不总是有地方可以去。在本周的节目中,我们探讨了非机构化是否是湾区无家可归者危机的一个因素。  今年早些时候,我们询问了您关于无家可归的问题。你们中有1300多人回复了,我们在第一轮报告中回答你们的许多问题。
在我们整理您的问题时,有一个话题一次又一次地出现。本周在播客上,我们回答了听众黛比·奥的问题: “由于我们州的心理健康设施关闭,情况会像现在这样糟糕吗?” 赞助
点击上面的红色播放按钮查看完整故事,然后在下面查看非机构化时间表。 去制度化:一段历史 1833年,伍斯特州立医院在马萨诸塞州开业,是第一家完全由州政府资助的精神病院。 马萨诸塞州伍斯特的伍斯特州立精神病院,日期为1905年。(维基共享资源) 1860年,美国现有的33个州中有28个州设有州立精神病院。 1939-1945 年第二次世界大战期间,出于良心拒服兵役者进入国立精神病院,以取代因战争而被送走的医生。 1946 年《生活杂志》刊登了医院内恐怖的照片。 1954年氯丙 ?? ,以胸 ?? 的名义销售,经食品药品监督管理局批准。这是第一种广泛用于治疗精神疾病症状的抗精神病药物。对许多人来说,这带来了一些患者可以生活在社区中的希望。 《Bedlam 1946》从《生活杂志》上传播开来。(杰里·库克档案馆) 1955年,全国公立精神病院的患者人数达到56万人。 1959年,加利福尼亚州立精神病院的病人人数达到顶峰,为37,000人约翰总统。F.肯尼迪(国会图书馆) 1963 年约翰·F·总统。肯尼迪签署了《社区心理健康法》。这将该州精神病患者的责任推到联邦政府。肯尼迪希望建立一个社区心理健康中心网络,让精神病患者在接受护理的同时可以住在社区里。肯尼迪本可以受到启发采取行动,因为他的妹妹罗斯玛丽精神残疾,接受了脑白质切除术,并躲藏了一生。 新立法签署不到一个月,肯尼迪被暗杀。他没有完成这个计划。社区心理健康中心从未获得过稳定的资金,甚至15年后,承诺的中心也不到一半的建成。 1963年社区心理健康法。 1965年美国国会设立了医疗补助和医疗保险。生活在社区的精神残疾者有资格获得福利,但精神病院的精神病院除外。通过鼓励患者出院,州议员可以将精神病患者的护理费用转移到联邦政府。 1967年,罗纳德·里根当选为加利福尼亚州州长。此时,州立医院的病人人数已降至2.2万人,里根政府以下降为由削减精神卫生部。尽管有报告显示医院已经低于建议的人员配置水平,但他们还是削减了2600人,占预算的10%。 1967年,里根签署了《兰特曼-彼得里斯-肖特法案》,并结束了违背患者意愿或无限期地将患者送入机构的做法。这项法律被一些人视为“患者权利法案”。可悲的是,州立医院外的护理不足。该法律生效一年后,一项研究表明,进入圣马特奥刑事司法系统的精神病患者人数翻了一番。 1969年里根扭转了早些时候的预算削减。他把精神卫生部的支出增加了创纪录的2800万美元。 1973年,加利福尼亚州精神病院的病人人数下降到7000人。 1980年,吉米·卡特总统签署了《心理健康系统法》,以改善肯尼迪的梦想。 罗纳德·里根总统(国会图书馆) 1981年,里根总统废除了卡特通过《综合预算调节法》的立法这就把精神病患者的责任推回了各州。该立法为各州提供了整笔赠款,但联邦精神疾病支出有所下降。
2004年美国司法部估计,10%的州囚犯的症状符合精神障碍的标准。 2015年旧金山无家可归者统计中,55%的慢性无家可归者报告他们患有情绪或精神疾病。


CleverBeaver
还有解释为何80年代加州homeless开始多起来的
https://www.kcet.org/shows/socal-connected/the-rise-of-homelessness-in-the-1980s
The answer to these questions is rooted in both large-scale economic and political forces, as well as increasing personal vulnerability. Four interrelated dynamics were at play: declining personal incomes, loss of affordable housing, deep cuts in welfare programs, and a growing number of people facing personal problems that left them at high risk of homelessness.
其实看到homeless多 更深层的思考难道不该是社会的结构根本上是不是出了什么问题?
高房价地区 老师消防员警察都住不起 homeless的持续增加难到不是expected的吗?
CleverBeaver
你不让造affordable housing 那人家也只好搭个帐篷住下 不然呢?

y
yichuan
没有保障房,全靠房东收留交不起房租的人,这个系统已经产生了问题。 中国可以社会主义,是指每个人当时都拥有一张床,至少有个睡觉的地方。而美国,随着房价高涨,homeless只会越来越多。 其实房子才是社会稳定的根基
CleverBeaver
没有保障房,全靠房东收留交不起房租的人,这个系统已经产生了问题。 中国可以社会主义,是指每个人当时都拥有一张床,至少有个睡觉的地方。而美国,随着房价高涨,homeless只会越来越多。 其实房子才是社会稳定的根基
yichuan 发表于 2020-11-22 13:48

房价哪怕租金都不应该超过普通人可以负担的范围
其实hk的各种闹 和这边的流浪汉问题 根源都差不多
资本的运作有时反智反人性反科学 造成资源分配极度不平衡
普通人连基本的工作保障都没有 更别说房屋 医疗 和教育了
自求多福

EvenOdd
房价哪怕租金都不应该超过普通人可以负担的范围
其实hk的各种闹 和这边的流浪汉问题 根源都差不多
资本的运作有时反智反人性反科学 造成资源分配极度不平衡
普通人连基本的工作保障都没有 更别说房屋 医疗 和教育了
自求多福


CleverBeaver 发表于 2020-11-22 13:58

Perhaps, the US practically needs to re-build the manufacturing industry, which is fundamental to many fellow citizens - labours and engineers alike.
Then buying more things from China and others for improving likestyle would be easier without accumulating too much debts. 也许,美国实际上需要重建制造业,这对许多同胞来说都是至关重要的,无论是劳工还是工程师。
然后,在不积累太多债务的情况下,从中国和其他国家购买更多东西来改善喜欢的风格会更容易。
https://forums.huaren.us/showtopic.html?topicid=2621164&postid=86192028#86192028
Q https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manufacturing_in_the_United_States
Though manufacturing output robustly recovered from the Great Recession to reach an all-time high in 2018, manufacturing employment has been declining since the 1990s. This ''''jobless recovery'''' made job creation or preservation in the manufacturing sector an important topic in the 2016 United States presidential election.[4] 尽管制造业产值从大萧条中强劲复苏至2018年的历史新高,但制造业就业人数自1990年代以来一直在下降。 这种“失业复苏”使得制造业部门的就业创造或保留成为2016年美国总统大选的重要议题。[4]
U.S. manufacturing employment UQ
The labour wages in Germany and Japan are quite high, but it appears they can still have their healthy manufacturing industries. 德国和日本的劳动工资很高,但看来他们仍然可以拥有健康的制造业。
Q 一个国家需要有三大经济产业基础,第一是农业、第二是商业、第三是工业。
农业是保证国家经济稳定的基础,商业是保证国家经济流通的基础,工业则是保证国家经济创造力的基础。
而国家工业当中最重要的行业就是制造业,没有制造业的工业就像没有了天花板的房屋,很有可能一场大雨就让屋内设施毁于一旦。
而现代全球制造业的顶尖国家一共有三个:日本、美国、德国。但在这三个国家当中,最顶尖的依然是德国。
德国制造业的强大一直是全球各国探寻的秘密之一。很多制造业龙头企业都要去德国学习制造行业当中的技术与技能。但事实上只有真的了解德国制造并没有秘密,只是其他国家的制造业无法学到精髓而已。
https://club.6parkbbs.com/finance/index.php?app=forum&act=threadview&tid=14440352
总结
德国制造企业与其他两个国家相比有个非常明显的特点,他们大多是中小型私人企业。平均每个企业都不过500人的规模,销售额却可以每年达到1.5亿美元左右。这些企业的创业者往往都是隐士,他们非常低调却在公司管理上拥有丰富经验。
与动辄贷款的美国企业相比,他们将商人思维完全应用在企业管理与创收上。这就保证了德国制造企业能够良性运转,同时还可以闷声发大财的现状。
所以综上所述,与德国制造企业相比,日本制造企业只学到了他们的技术,却没有学明白他们的精神。而美国制造企业甚至连皮毛都还没有弄明白呢! UQ
Most likely, a farming industry without locally manufactured equipment for adding values would be a waste of utilisation of natural resources. Similarly, a commercial industry without investing in local manufacturing production for adding values would be a waste of utilisation of labour resources.
Without manufacturing industry, a nation would easily lose more and more jobs for many people who require labour jobs. Hence, mid-class jobs would be also diminishing.
如果没有当地制造的增值设备,农业很可能浪费自然资源。 同样,如果没有为增加价值而投资于本地制造业的商业产业,将浪费劳动资源。
没有制造业,一个国家很容易为许多需要劳动的人失去越来越多的工作。 因此,中产阶级的工作也将消失。
EvenOdd
<1980 President Jimmy Carter signs the Mental Health Systems Act to improve on Kennedy’s dream.>
Q
Jimmy Carter back to building homes for Habitat for Humanity ... thehill.com › blogs › in-the-know › in-the-know › 464...
Oct 7, 2019 — A day after suffering a fall in his Georgia home that led to stitches, 95-year-old former President Carter volunteered to help build homes for ...
Jimmy & Rosalynn Carter Work Project - Wikipedia en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Jimmy_&_Rosalynn_Carter_...
The Jimmy & Rosalynn Carter Work Project - formerly the Jimmy Carter Work Project (JCWP) - is an annual home building blitz organized by Habitat for ...
UQ

CleverBeaver
谢ls顶帖... 去工业化的逆转 不是一件简单的事
我之前一直没明白的,学生生涯里遇见的最优秀的都去花街了是为啥。现在明白了。工业界的职位的不断流失,这些人除了炒股和写代码,又还能干嘛呢
CleverBeaver
同样的去工业化 造成了无法转业的底层人民生活越来越糟
且哪个党上台都变化不大 可以理解他们的失望和绝望的
EvenOdd
Perhaps all products imported to the US must contain a certain percentage of US contents.
While 100% means wholly produced in the US, selecting suitable percentage of local contents could most likely stimulate a lot of manyfacturing jobs and related investments.
Tariffs alone could be just providing relatively passive acts, sometimes even bad for both parties.
This US contents policy would be likely a better policy for stimulating more win-win acts by means of increasing international trades as well increasing domestic jobs of both sides (rather than single side) , possibly better than merely conventional tariffs.
An industrial ethical capitalism approach, to emphasise quality manufacturing jobs, should be better than the conventional capitalism way. 
Most importantly, this US contents policy would stimulate an overseas business party would invest further investment and skills into the US for ensuring more US jobs as well as US contents.
也许所有进口到美国的产品都必须包含一定比例的美国内容。
虽然100%表示在美国完全生产,但选择适当百分比的本地内容很可能会刺激许多制造业工作和相关投资。
关税本身可能只是提供相对被动的行为,有时甚至对双方都不利。
这个美国的物权政策可能是通过增加国际贸易以及增加双方(而不是单方面)的国内工作来刺激更多双赢行为的更好政策,可能比仅是常规关税更好。
用工业伦理资本主义的方法强调高质量的制造业工作,应该比传统的资本主义方法更好。
最重要的是,这项美国物资政策将刺激海外商业团体向美国投资进一步的投资和技能,以确保增加美国的工作和美国物资。
Just 20 cents! 才20美分!
Q Turnaround management is a process dedicated to corporate renewal. It uses analysis and planning to save troubled companies and returns them to solvency, and to identify the reasons for failing performance in the market, and rectify them.
Turnaround management - Wikipedia
UQ
EvenOdd
As a domestic-content for imported-goods policy is implemented, the domestic-content could be strategically defined as a percentage measure, or a component specific, or a combination of both. When compining with robotic-worker manufacturing, some key components such as motors, compressors, engines, ICs, etc, could be produced in the US before importing from Asian countries their final assemblies that use the key components.
在实施进口商品的内含物政策时,可以从战略上将内含物定义为百分比度量或特定于组件的内容,或两者结合。 与机器人工人的制造相结合时,一些关键组件(例如电动机,压缩机,引擎,IC等)可能会在美国生产,然后再从亚洲国家进口使用这些关键组件的最终组件。
This kind of industrial ethical capitalism economy to strategically provide employment jobs and generate production values could be also a part of peace-building protocol. Otherwise, mainly weapons and guns would be produced domestically, that would simply increase international wars (by military weapons), or domeastic conflicts (by guns).
这种从战略上提供就业机会并创造生产价值的工业伦理资本主义经济也可能是缔造和平协议的一部分。 否则,将主要在国内生产武器和枪支,这只会增加国际战争(通过军事武器)或国内冲突(通过枪支)。
I think the general consumers would need to pay higher price for their goods but the incremental cost should be well justified for a stable society. 我认为普通消费者将需要为他们的商品支付更高的价格,但是增加的成本对于稳定的社会应该是合理的。
https://forums.huaren.us/showtopic.html?topicid=2621164&fid=398
EvenOdd
你不让造affordable housing 那人家也只好搭个帐篷住下 不然呢?


CleverBeaver 发表于 2020-11-22 13:18


For just Victoria state (6,500,000 population) in Australia. 仅在澳大利亚的维多利亚州(650万人口)。
Q https://www.afr.com/politics/federal/victoria-to-stimulate-property-market-with-tax-breaks-public-housing-20201124-p56hbr
Social housing push The bulk of housing spending will come from a record $5.3 billion public housing scheme to construct 9300 new social housing dwellings and 2900 low-cost homes. A quarter of the investment will be in regional Victoria and 1000 of the new dwellings will be reserved for Indigenous Australians, 1000 for victims of domestic violence, and 2000 for people with mental illness. “In a year when ‘home’ became increasingly central to our lives, we’re making sure more Victorians than ever have a roof over their heads,” Mr Pallas said. 社会住房推
住房支出的大部分将来自创纪录的53亿澳元的公共住房计划,以建造9300座新的社会住房和2900座廉价房屋。
其中四分之一的投资将在维多利亚州地区,其中1000套新住宅将保留给澳大利亚土著居民,1000套用于家庭暴力受害者,而2000套则用于精神疾病患者。
帕拉斯先生说:“在''''家''''日益成为我们生活的中心的一年中,我们确保比以往任何时候都更多的维多利亚人头上盖着屋顶。” UQ
CleverBeaver
据我所知 新加坡和丹麦都是有public housing的
不给估计照搬到美国不可行
BubbleBee
回复 9楼CleverBeaver的帖子
小布什之前的共和党是内政垃圾,外交厉害(里根、尼克松),在美国国内被骂死,但在国际上还有点声誉,所以华人上大部分人来美之前,在中国听到的都是说他们的好话,根本不熟悉他们祸害美国自己人的劣迹。
不过从小布什开始共和党就彻底魔障了,不管多好的摊子,如假包换最后保证给你砸个稀巴烂。两次经济危机都是共和党,一次比一次搞的大,外政也跟无头苍蝇一样,真搞的跟垂暮之年一样