新冠病毒袭击全人类.中国做得非常出色在全人类抗击该病毒的斗争

gogo2004
楼主 (未名空间)


法国知名的人类学家,世界大流行病研究专家,曾经在香港巴士德学院研究流行病多年的法国国家科研中心研究主任 Frederic Kecks两年前在巴黎布朗里博物馆举行的一次
有关西班牙流感的公开讨论会上介绍说,事实上,西班牙流感爆发时的病毒学研究尚未能够分离出病毒的毒株,更不要说编译出病毒的基因序列,一直要到上个世纪五十年代,准确地说是1951年,美国的病毒学家专家约翰 霍尔顿John Hultin率领团队前往阿拉斯加地区采取病毒样本,当地的因努特人当初有一大半人口都死于西班牙流感,他们的躯体因被埋葬在冰土之中而获得完整地保存,约翰霍尔顶的团队带着手套与口罩,将尸体从冰土中取出,并且从尸体身上采集了样本,之后,再拿到艾何华大学的实验室进行研究,当时他们找到了一些细菌和病毒,当却并未找到引发西班牙流感的病毒,一直要到九十年代,另一位美国军队的学者在马里兰州从他们保留的样本以及实验室保留的一块美军士兵的肺器官上找到了可能是流感病毒的部分基因,经过十多年的努力,学者们才象拼图一样成功地编译出了完整的病毒的基因序列,这一病毒就是今天我们都知道的H1N1流感病毒。这一寻找病毒并且重组基因序列的研究在当初也曾经引发争议,舆论担心这一新发现会被用来制造具有大规模杀伤性的生物武器。

不过,值得肯定的是,这一病毒从此成为分析其他病毒的突变以及威胁性的一大参照。比如说,研究发现2009年出现的H1N1流感病毒同西班牙流感病毒基本类似,那么,为何2009年这一病毒再度出现却并未造成灾难性的大流行病呢?有学者认为这或许是由于人类对该病毒的集体免疫能力的提高。另外,1967年出现的H1N1病毒却与西班牙流感病毒略有不同,研究认为该病毒曾经通过了猪这一中间宿主再传播给人类,而猪之所以被感染是由于实验室泄漏所造成的。确实,实验室泄漏病毒事件在病毒学研究史上曾经屡屡发生,这也是为什么许多专家都反对实验室储藏甚至研制致命性的高危病毒。

综上所述,西班牙流感的病毒经历了八十年的时间才被明确的确认,而且即使是在今天,专家在他最早的源发地上仍然存在分歧。有专家认为是由参加一战的美国士兵带进欧洲,但也有专家认为病毒很可能最早出现在亚洲,被前往欧洲充当苦力的中国人或印度人带入欧洲,法国医疗卫生资料相关记载透露早在1917年,法国农村就已经出现类似的病例。

所以,从追踪西班牙流感病毒的历史过程中我们也可以想像或许新冠病毒的来源及其传播路径也同样存在着许多未知数,先不说病毒究竟是自然病毒还是人造病毒,仅仅病毒的传播途径就依然缺乏明朗,虽然中国官方的解释的是病毒来自武汉的华南海鲜市场,但是,如果说中国国内舆论无权对此做出公开的讨论的话,在海外,越来越多的人对此提出公开的质疑。华盛顿邮报本周就刊登了一篇专栏文章,引述美国外交部门的内部机密电邮指出,美国在武汉的外交官早已对武汉两家病毒实验室的安全问题提出担忧,早已呼吁美国专家介入协助中国实验室完善安全工作。这或许也解释了为何美国是最早从武汉撤侨的国家。当然,同此前中国学者指控实验室可能泄漏病毒的文章一样,华盛顿邮报的文章也同样未能提供实验室泄漏病毒的具体证据。不过,中国官方有关病毒来自海鲜市场的说法也同样缺乏证据,因为根据英国柳叶刀杂志公布的内容,武汉首列新冠肺炎病人与华南海鲜市场并没有关系。其次,如果说新冠病毒来自蝙蝠这一说法基本获得专家们的一致认可的话,它如何传给人类的传播途径至今也依然是一个难解之谜。
https://www.rfi.fr/cn/%E7%A4%BE%E4%BC%9A/20200417-%E4%BB%8E%E8%A5%BF%E7%8F%
AD%E7%89%99%E6%B5%81%E6%84%9F%E7%97%85%E6%AF%92%E6%9D%A5%E6%BA%90%EF%BC%8C%
E4%BC%A0%E6%92%AD%E8%B7%AF%E5%BE%84%E5%8F%8A%E5%85%B6%E5%8E%86%E5%8F%B2%E5%
BD%B1%E5%93%8D%E7%9C%8B%E6%96%B0%E5%86%A0%E8%82%BA%E7%82%8E

The Deadliest Flu: The Complete Story of the Discovery and Reconstruction of the 1918 Pandemic Virus
https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/reconstruction-1918-virus.html

gogo2004


"First detection of SARS-CoV-2 in untreated wastewaters in Italy"

Science of The Total Environment
Volume 736, 20 September 2020, 139652
...

Significantly, on February 24th and 28th, when the samples positive for SARS-CoV-2 were collected in Milan, COVID-19 infections were still limited in
Italy, the first Italian autochthonous SARS-CoV-2 positive case having been reported only a few days earlier, on February 21st. On February 28th, the
total number of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients reported in all Italy was only 888, with 531 (57%) in Lombardy, the most affected region in the country.
However, at that time, the vast majority of cases in Lombardy were recorded in the provinces of Lodi, Cremona and Bergamo (182, 123, and 103 cases,
respectively). In comparison, in the province of Milan (an even larger area compared to the metropolitan area served by the selected WWTPs) only 29
cases had been reported (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile, 2020a).
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969720331727

On 2 December, a man was admitted to Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (Colmar); on 7 May, the director of the medical imagery department claimed that the man had been positive for COVID-19 in December.[29] His thoracic scan, taken in December, was one of several suspicious scans identified by the hospital as being typical of COVID-19, the earliest of these suspicious scans having been on 16 November.[30]

On 27 December, a man was admitted to Avicenne Hospital and tested for
influenza, which came back as negative. On 3 May, Yves Cohen, head of
resuscitation at the hospital, said that following a retest of the man's
December sample, it had come back positive for COVID-19. Cohen said it was
too early to know if the man had been France's "patient zero".[12][13]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_France#First_Cases

gogo2004


!!! 两个世界 !!!

..

"One in three Massachusetts tenants at risk of eviction, advocates say"
https://www.masslive.com/news/2020/08/one-in-three-massachusetts-tenants-at-risk-of-eviction-advocates-say.html

Governor Baker extended the moratorium to October 17, 2020.

马萨诸塞州租房驱逐暂停令期满. 房屋法庭将于下周重新开放 (10/16/2020)

Trial Court Chief Justice Paula Carey said the courts expect anywhere
from 25,000 to 200,000 cases in the coming months. Prior to the pandemic,
state housing courts averaged about 3,300 cases per month,

The moratorium froze 11,553 pending cases, according to state court data.
Those will resume first, with hearing notices starting to be sent out Monday

: ...................

"前后十个月,从沮丧到繁荣,武汉人民受苦了!"

vhttps://www.youtube.com/v/VWzUJAbkePc

vhttps://www.youtube.com/v/syvlnzHAfpU



gogo2004


【 在 gogo2004 (挑灯看剑) 的大作中提到: 】
: !!! 两个世界 !!!
: ..

https://covid19.healthdata.org/united-states-of-america?view=total-deaths&
tab=trend
https://covid19.healthdata.org/global

gogo2004


【 在 gogo2004 (挑灯看剑) 的大作中提到: 】
:
: https://covid19.healthdata.org/united-states-of-america?view=total-deaths&: tab=trend
: https://covid19.healthdata.org/global

在 gogo2004 (挑灯看剑) 的大作中提到: 】
: 新冠病毒袭击全人类,在全人类抗击该病毒的斗争中, 中国做得非常出色!!

柳叶刀最新报告,中国新冠灭活疫苗安全
Methods
We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial at
Shangqiu City Liangyuan District Center for Disease Control and Prevention
in Henan Province, China. In phase 1, healthy people aged 18–80 years, who were negative for serum-specific IgM/IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at
the time of screening, were separated into two age groups (18–59 years and ≥60 years) and randomly assigned to receive vaccine or placebo in a two-
dose schedule of 2 μg, 4 μg, or 8 μg on days 0 and 28. In phase 2,
healthy adults (aged 18–59 years) were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to ....
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30831-8/
fulltext

....

世卫组织数据显示,当前全球新冠肺炎病毒候选疫苗182个,临床试验36个,临床前研
究146个,9个疫苗进入Ⅲ期临床试验。

  “目前,中国已有11个疫苗进入临床试验阶段,其中4个进入Ⅲ期临床试验。”吴
远彬介绍,4个进入Ⅲ期临床试验的疫苗,其中3个为灭活疫苗,1个为腺病毒载体疫苗
。重组蛋白疫苗、核酸疫苗、减毒流感病毒载体疫苗正在抓紧开展Ⅰ期、Ⅱ期的临床实验。

  我国4个进入Ⅲ期临床试验的疫苗中,其中2个由国药集团中国生物承担研发。6月
,国药集团中国生物新冠灭活疫苗国际临床(Ⅲ期)试验正式启动。阿联酋国内参与试验的主要合作研究者之一卡比博士表示,世界上共有125个国家的3.1万名志愿者参加了该项临床试验,试验结果表明参与试验的志愿者均已产生抗体。

  由科兴控股旗下北京科兴中维生物技术有限公司研制的新冠疫苗——克尔来福,在2020年6月24日获批用于紧急使用。该疫苗正陆续在巴西、印度尼西亚、土耳其等多个
国家稳步推进Ⅲ期临床研究。根据科兴方面的预期,公司能够在11月或12月获得Ⅲ期研究结果。
http://www.ccdi.gov.cn/toutiao/202009/t20200926_226233.html

gogo2004


Scientists discover new strain of coronavirus in Europe

vhttps://www.youtube.com/v/4zriabjiLbc

Coronavirus traces found in Spanish sewage sample from March 2019
https://globalnews.ca/news/7119856/coronavirus-sewage-barcelona-march-2019/

Spanish virologists have found traces of the novel coronavirus in a sample
of Barcelona waste water collected in March 2019, nine months before the
COVID-19 disease was identified in China, the University of Barcelona said
on Friday.