现在的小麦的确不同于100年前的小麦,但并非转基因技术所致

d
dudaan
楼主 (文学城)

而是通过选择性杂交实现的。虽然基因有改变,请不要把这个东西叫做转基因,因为转基因是专指特殊的基因工程技术。

下面是相关的一段英文文章:

Hybridized Wheat May Be To Blame

That doesn't mean wheat hasn't changed over the last half-dozen decades, though—it has, as the result of a process called hybridization (which is different from genetic engineering). And some scientists (although not all) say those changes could be one cause of an increase in the number of people who have an inability to tolerate gluten.

 

In hybridization, scientists don't tinker directly with the plant's genome. Instead, they choose particular strains of a plant with desirable characteristics and breed them to reinforce those characteristics. When this is done repeatedly, successive generations of a particular plant can look very different from the plant's ancestors.

 

That's what's happened with modern wheat, which is shorter, browner, and far higher-yielding than wheat crops were 100 years ago. Dwarf wheat and semi-dwarf wheat crops have replaced their taller cousins, and these wheat strains require less time and less fertilizer to produce a robust crop of wheat berries.

 

Dr. William Davis, author of the anti-wheat best-selling book Wheat Belly, raises questions in his book about whether these changes in wheat have caused the spike in gluten-related health problems, including obesity and diabetes. "Small changes in wheat protein structure can spell the difference between a devastating immune response to wheat protein versus no immune response at all," Davis writes. Modern wheat has been bred to contain more gluten, he says.

 

However, a study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry cast doubt on part of Davis' hypothesis when it reported that there's not really any more gluten in modern wheat than there was in 1920s-era wheat.

 

d
dudaan
按照链接(见内)文章的看法,欧洲的主要小麦品种面筋含量低于美国的主流小麦

欧美小麦比较

米兰之夜
应当就是孟德尔定律,袁隆平的路子
p
pickshell
市售面粉也分低筋,中筋,高筋面粉。通常制作蛋糕用低筋,高筋用于制作面包。

面包也分,美国白面包或中式面包,口感柔软需要有拉丝效果(高筋),而欧式面包多属全麦或杂粮面包,比较硬易碎,他们当主食吃。 吃法不同,与不同饮食习惯也有关。

 

d
dudaan
也希望欧洲的朋友们看看面粉标签,是否和美国一样强制添加维生素和铁

中国只有极少数称作“强化小麦粉”的才添加。美国是所有都添加。

同是面粉,可能真的存在不少区别。

米兰之夜
这个挺说明问题

如果它的结论正确的话,那么美国人,在美国吃欧洲产的面和面食,对麸质过敏是有改善作用的。

而且:Hard wheat has more gluten than soft wheat, and the gluten it contains is stronger than gluten found in soft wheat.

就是说二者所含的gluten不仅有量的差异,还有质的差异。

米兰之夜
最后一句话,更有意思

Interestingly, despite the difference in gluten between American and European wheat, rates of celiac disease between the two regions are identical, with 1 in 133 people believed to suffer from this gluten-related autoimmune disease。

对麸质过敏,我无疑在做学问的第一阶段:“昨夜西风凋碧树,独上高楼,望尽天涯路。”

虎嗅蔷薇
我在欧洲很多国家,看到餐馆和超市里有许多gluten free食品的选择。
虎嗅蔷薇
美国中西部的一些有机农场产一种“老种”麦子,Einkorn,据说是易消化,面筋蛋白含量低而且结构上有所不同。

在自认Non celiac gluten sensitive的消费群体里有市场。这些人试过后感觉不错就是回头客了。

https://www.einkorn.com/einkorn-nutritional-facts/

 

 

虎嗅蔷薇
上面给你加点阅读内容,可通往治学第二境界了
米兰之夜
虎妞医生威武

不过,正直贴秋膘的季节,可以不受社会舆论谴责,不受自己的良心谴责大吃大喝的日子,我憔悴下来恐非易事 

t
thetruth111
但事实证明Monsanto甚至欧洲确实发展了GMO麦子!这里有

视频

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aYPJJaQhtxc

只要在地里种GMO, 就会传播,不管多小心。所以20多年后, 现在没有人知道到底GMO麦子在美国有多普遍。你更不可能知道!

from Wiki

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_wheat

“Field trials and approvals

As of 2013, 34 field trials of GM wheat have taken place in Europe and 419 have taken place in the US.[9] Modifications tested include those to create resistance to herbicides, create resistance to insects[10][11][12] and to fungal pathogens (especially fusarium) and viruses,[13][14] tolerance to drought and resistance to salinity[15] and heat,[16] increased[17][18] and decreased[19] content of glutenin, improved nutrition (higher protein content, increased heat stability of the enzyme phytase, increased content of water-soluble dietary fiber, increased lysine content),[20][21] improved qualities for use as biofuel feedstock, production of drugs via pharming and yield increases.[9][22][23][24][25][26]

As of December 2017, no GM wheat had been approved for release anywhere in the world.[27][28][29]

Monsanto's MON 71800

The transgenic wheat that was furthest developed was Monsanto's MON 71800, which is glyphosate-resistant via a CP4/maize EPSPS gene.[30] Monsanto received approval from the FDA for its use in food, but withdrew its EPA application in 2004, so the product was never marketed. It also received approval for use as food in Colombia.[31]

Studies conducted by Monsanto showed that its nutritional components are equivalent to nontransgenic commercially available wheat,[32] and animal studies that have used MON 71800 for feed have confirmed this.[33] Environmental Risk assessments have been conducted by Monsanto,[34] and government regulatory agencies have approved its use in food;[35]

However, farmers were worried about the potential loss of markets in Europe and Asia due to public refusal of the end-product,[36][37] so Monsanto withdrew its EPA application for Roundup-Ready Wheat.[38]

In 2010 Monsanto's partner in India, Mahyco, announced that it planned to seek approval to market GM wheat in India in the next three to five years.[39]

Bioceres's HB4

The Argentina-based company Bioceres developed a genetically modified wheat variety claiming to withstand drought while providing farmers with high yields.[40] But as of 2019 this GM variety isn't approved yet because of risks for trade: export markets may not accept it.

Escape of GM wheat seed

In 1999 scientists in Thailand claimed they discovered glyphosate-resistant wheat in a grain shipment from the Pacific Northwest of the United States, even though transgenic wheat had never been approved for sale and was only ever grown in test plots. No one could explain how the transgenic wheat got into the food supply.[41]

In May 2013 a strain of genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant wheat was found on a farm in Oregon. Extensive testing confirmed the wheat as a variety – MON71800.[42] The wheat had been developed by Monsanto but never been approved or marketed after the company had tested it between 1998 and 2005. The unexplained presence of this type of wheat presents a problem to wheat growers when buyers demand GMO-free wheat.[43] Japan subsequently suspended import of soft white wheat from the United States.[44] A Kansas farmer sued Monsanto over the release, saying it had caused the price of wheat grown in the US to fall.[45] Monsanto suggested that the presence of this wheat was likely an act of sabotage.[46] On Jun 14, 2013, the USDA announced: "As of today, USDA has neither found nor been informed of anything that would indicate that this incident amounts to more than a single isolated incident in a single field on a single farm. All information collected so far shows no indication of the presence of GE wheat in commerce."[47] As of August 30, 2013, while the source of the GM wheat remained unknown, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan had all resumed placing orders, and the disruption of the export market was minimal.[48]

The investigation was closed in 2014 after the APHIS had exhausted all leads but had not found any evidence that the wheat had entered commercial supply.

In 2019, the USDA announced that genetically modified wheat plants engineered to resist Roundup were detected in an unplanted field in Washington state.[49]“

 


t
thetruth111
你要明白,美国市场上的低中筋粉不是天然的低中筋,而是把Gluten提出

Gluten提练出来,作为Gluten Flour来卖!

w
wwni60
杂交改变genome, 新作物可能增加几百人上千个基因,有很多未知因素。
w
wwni60
转基因作只比原来的作物增加几个甚因,其蛋白都经过严格的食品安检。转基因产品更安全。
l
lawattaction
现在的面粉是不同于100 年前或几千年前的了,所以尽量少吃吧。

几年前,我就对我的朋友说,面粉使血糖升高,还是少吃吧!朋友不同意,说我们祖祖辈辈吃面粉,怎么到你这就......

河南人非常爱吃面食,比我吃的多多了。有关节炎,医生说继续发展将来要做轮椅,换胯。原来是位很健康的人。我不知道关节炎是否和吃太多的面食有关。

 

欲千北
谢谢分享
l
lawattaction
请问你什么时候吃面粉?(馒头,烙饼,面条,面包?),吃的多吗?身边有人吃面粉过敏的?

你为什么对它研究这么深入呢?

我就是好奇!谢谢!

w
wwni60
现在的米面豆很多蔬果与十年前都不一样。
l
lawattaction
很多病都是与吃的有关的,我越来越坚信这一点。

冬天有空,我要和几个邻居聊聊,顺便颠覆一下他们的传统观念!都是白人,几次我话到嘴边,都憋回去了,有点下不了手。哈哈

f
fuz
面筋古亦有之。“濯尽柔面,面筋乃见”出自《梦溪笔谈》。中国北方以面食为主,上千年洗礼,淘汰不耐受。

原文:濯尽柔麪,则麪筋乃见

 

洗面及副产品

https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/68978334

 

w
wwni60
面筋的主要成份是蛋白,40%是gluten.
欲千北
你得痛下狠手,对他们好。
e
ephd
这不是麻烦了,这些人不能享受辣条了,辣条是纯面筋做的
t
thetruth111
我是北方人,吃面粉挺多。所以才要好好研究。

不过我吃美国麦子还没什么明显的反应。但我的胃口变大可能确实和吃面食有关,这样对体重也不好。其它还没什么明显的副作用。我对美国麦子的Gluten 没反应,所以还专门买了gluten做面筋。

可美国的大米也有问题,含砷高。特别是brown rice 。 所以我尽量买国内或泰国进口的大米。国内的大米多半含铅和镉较高。但这两种重金属对成年人来讲,没有砷坏。砷是致癌的。 美国卖的short grain差不多都是美国产的。香米很多是进口的